The attr() CSS function is used to retrieve the value of an attribute of the selected element and use it in the style sheet. It can be used on pseudo-elements too and, in this case, the value of the attribute on the pseudo-element's originated element is returned.
The calc() CSS function can be used anywhere a <length>, <frequency>, <angle>, <time>, <number>, or <integer> is required. With calc(), you can perform calculations to determine CSS property values.
The var() function can be used instead of any part of a value in any property on an element. The var() function can not be used as property names, selectors or anything else besides property values. (Doing so usually produces invalid syntax or else a value whose meaning has no connection to the variable.)
The element() CSS function defines an <image> value generated from an arbitrary HTML element. This image is live, meaning that if the HTML element is changed, the CSS properties using the resulting value are automatically updated.
The CSS linear-gradient() function creates an <image> which represents a linear gradient of colors. The result of this function is an object of the CSS <gradient> data type. Like any other gradient, a CSS linear gradient is not a CSS <color> but an image with no intrinsic dimensions; that is, it has neither natural or preferred size, nor ratio. Its concrete size will match the size of the element it applies to.
The CSS radial-gradient() function creates an <image> which represents a gradient of colors radiating from an origin, the center of the gradient. The result of this function is an object of the CSS <gradient> data type.
This works similarly to the standard radial gradients as described by radial-gradient(), but it automatically repeats the color stops infinitely in both directions, with their positions shifted by multiples of the difference between the last color stop's position and the first one's position.
The CSS repeating-linear-gradient function creates an <image> consisting of repeating gradients. It works similarly to the basic linear gradients as described by linear-gradient(), and takes the same arguments. However, it automatically repeats the color stops infinitely in both directions. The color stops' positions shift by multiples of the length of a basic linear gradient (the difference between the last color stops' position and the first).