ByteString is a UTF-8 String that corresponds to the set of all possible sequences of bytes. ByteString maps to a String when returned in JavaScript; generally, it's only used when interfacing with protocols that use bytes and strings interchangably, such as HTTP.
USVString corresponds to the set of all possible sequences of unicode scalar values. USVString maps to a String when returned in JavaScript; it's generally only used for APIs that perform text processing and need a string of unicode scalar values to operate on.