The Object.create() method creates a new object with the specified prototype object and properties.


Object.create(<var>proto</var>[, <var>propertiesObject</var>])


The object which should be the prototype of the newly-created object.
Optional. If specified and not undefined, an object whose enumerable own properties (that is, those properties defined upon itself and not enumerable properties along its prototype chain) specify property descriptors to be added to the newly-created object, with the corresponding property names. These properties correspond to the second argument of Object.defineProperties().

Return value

A new object with the specified prototype object and properties.


A TypeError exception if the proto parameter isn't null or an object.


Classical inheritance with Object.create()

Below is an example of how to use Object.create() to achieve classical inheritance. This is for single inheritance, which is all that JavaScript supports.

// Shape - superclass
function Shape() {
  this.x = 0;
  this.y = 0;

// superclass method
Shape.prototype.move = function(x, y) {
  this.x += x;
  this.y += y;
  console.info('Shape moved.');

// Rectangle - subclass
function Rectangle() {
  Shape.call(this); // call super constructor.

// subclass extends superclass
Rectangle.prototype = Object.create(Shape.prototype);
Rectangle.prototype.constructor = Rectangle;

var rect = new Rectangle();

console.log('Is rect an instance of Rectangle?', rect instanceof Rectangle);// true
console.log('Is rect an instance of Shape?', rect instanceof Shape);// true
rect.move(1, 1); // Outputs, 'Shape moved.'

If you wish to inherit from multiple objects, then mixins are a possibility.

function MyClass() {

MyClass.prototype = Object.create(SuperClass.prototype); // inherit
mixin(MyClass.prototype, OtherSuperClass.prototype); // mixin

MyClass.prototype.myMethod = function() {
  // do a thing

The mixin function would copy the functions from the superclass prototype to the subclass prototype, the mixin function needs to be supplied by the user. An example of a mixin like function would be jQuery.extend().

Using propertiesObject argument with Object.create()

var o;

// create an object with null as prototype
o = Object.create(null);

o = {};
// is equivalent to:
o = Object.create(Object.prototype);

// Example where we create an object with a couple of sample properties.
// (Note that the second parameter maps keys to *property descriptors*.)
o = Object.create(Object.prototype, {
  // foo is a regular 'value property'
  foo: { writable: true, configurable: true, value: 'hello' },
  // bar is a getter-and-setter (accessor) property
  bar: {
    configurable: false,
    get: function() { return 10; },
    set: function(value) { console.log('Setting `o.bar` to', value); }
/* with ES5 Accessors our code can look like this
    get function() { return 10; },
    set function(value) { console.log('setting `o.bar` to', value); } */

function Constructor() {}
o = new Constructor();
// is equivalent to:
o = Object.create(Constructor.prototype);
// Of course, if there is actual initialization code in the
// Constructor function, the Object.create() cannot reflect it

// Create a new object whose prototype is a new, empty object
// and add a single property 'p', with value 42.
o = Object.create({}, { p: { value: 42 } });

// by default properties ARE NOT writable, enumerable or configurable:
o.p = 24;
// 42

o.q = 12;
for (var prop in o) {
// 'q'

delete o.p;
// false

// to specify an ES3 property
o2 = Object.create({}, {
  p: {
    value: 42,
    writable: true,
    enumerable: true,
    configurable: true


This polyfill covers the main use case which is creating a new object for which the prototype has been chosen but doesn't take the second argument into account.

Note that while the setting of null as [[Prototype]] is supported in the real ES5 Object.create, this polyfill cannot support it due to a limitation inherent in versions of ECMAScript lower than 5.

if (typeof Object.create != 'function') {
  Object.create = (function(undefined) {
    var Temp = function() {};
    return function (prototype, propertiesObject) {
      if(prototype !== Object(prototype) && prototype !== null) {
        throw TypeError('Argument must be an object, or null');
      Temp.prototype = prototype || {};
      var result = new Temp();
      Temp.prototype = null;
      if (propertiesObject !== undefined) {
        Object.defineProperties(result, propertiesObject); 
      // to imitate the case of Object.create(null)
      if(prototype === null) {
         result.__proto__ = null;
      return result;


Specification Status Comment
ECMAScript 5.1 (ECMA-262)
The definition of 'Object.create' in that specification.
Standard Initial definition. Implemented in JavaScript 1.8.5.
ECMAScript 2015 (6th Edition, ECMA-262)
The definition of 'Object.create' in that specification.
ECMAScript 2017 Draft (ECMA-262)
The definition of 'Object.create' in that specification.

Browser compatibility

Feature Chrome Firefox (Gecko) Internet Explorer Opera Safari
Basic support 5 4.0 (2) 9 11.60 5
Feature Android Chrome for Android Firefox Mobile (Gecko) IE Mobile Opera Mobile Safari Mobile
Basic support (Yes) (Yes) 4.0 (2) (Yes) 11.5 (Yes)

See also


© 2016 Mozilla Contributors
Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License v2.5 or later.

ECMAScript5 JavaScript Method Object polyfill Reference