Python Built-In Functions
Python ascii() Function
Returns a readable version of an object by replacing non-ASCII characters with an escape character.
Python abs() Function
Returns the absolute value of a number.
Python all() Function
True if all items in an iterable object (a list, tuple, or dictionary)
Python any() Function
True if any items in an iterable (a list, tuple, or dictionary) are
True. If the iterable is empty then this function returns
Python bin() Function
Returns the binary version of a number
Python bool() Function
Returns the boolean of a value. 0,
None and an empty string
False. Anything else (a non-zero number,
True, something with a
value, and a non-empty string) return
Python bytearray() Function
Returns either an empty bytearray object of a given size, or a bytearray object from the bytes in the source object
Python bytes() Function
Returns an array of the specified number of bytes, initialized to 0. If a string is passed instead of a number, the string is encoded as bytes with the encoding (required parameter when converting strings to bytes).
Python callable() Function
Python chr() Function
Returns the character (a string) of an integer representing a unicode code point.
Python compile() Function
compile() converts a string to a Python code object. The code
object is then executed using
Python delattr() Function
Deletes an attribute of an object. Note that the attribute is deleted for the instance of that object, not for the class. Other instances (objects) of the same class still retain the attribute.
Python object() Function
Returns a featureless object.
Python oct() Function
Converts an integer to octal, a base 8 number.
Python open() Function
Opens a file for reading, writing or appending.
Python ord() Function
Given a string representing one Unicode character, ord() returns an integer representing the Unicode code point of that character.
Python pow() Function
Returns the value of x to the power of y, which is equivalent to using the
operator, but note that the
** operator is usually faster.
Python print() Function
Prints a message to the screen or other standard output device.
Python property() Function
One can programmatically create a property of a class that references the getter, setter, and deleter functions for an attribute of the class, and optionally documentation for the attribute as well.
Python range() Function
Returns a sequence of numbers starting from 0 (the default) and incrementing by 1 (the default) to the specified stop value. The stop value is not included in the range.
Python repr() Function
Returns a printable representation of the given object.
Python reversed() Function
Returns a reversed iterator object.
Python round() Function
Rounds numbers to the specified number of digits past the decimal point (default is 0 digits past the decimal point.)
Python next() Function
next() function returns the next item in an iterator.
If the items in the collection are exhausted, Python throws a
Python set() Function
Returns a new set object which can either be an uninitialized set or from a sequence, collection, or iterator object.
Python slice() Function
Returns a slice object. A slice object is an object that is used to slice (cut up) any indexable collection (string, tuple, list, range, or bytes).
Python sorted() Function
Returns a sorted list, in ascending order or optionally in descending order.
Contrast this with the
sort() function, which does an in-place sort.
Python str() Function
Returns an object converted to a string.
Python sum() Function
Sums all the items in an iterator
Python super() Function
Returns an object that represents the parent instance which you can use to access functions in the parent class.
Python tuple() Function
Creates a tuple from a sequence, collection, or an iterable object. If the parameter is not specified, Python returns an empty tuple.
Python type() Function
Returns the type of an object.
Python vars() Function
Returns the attributes of a class as a dictionary. Contrast with the
function, which includes class attributes
and the attributes of super classes as well.
Python zip() Function
Returns an iterable object of tuples that joins together two or more iteratable objects, pairing each item in the iterables. The iterable with the least items determines the length of the tuple.
Python setattr() Function
Sets the attribute of an object. The attribute must have been initialized in the class.
Python min() Function
Returns the smallest value in a list of parameters or in an iterable.
Python memoryview() Function
Returns a memory view of an object.
Python max() Function
Returns the largest value in a list of parameters or in an iterable.
Python dict() Function
Returns a dictionary from a comma separated list of key-value pairs.
Python dir() Function
Returns a list of the specified object's properties and methods. If no
object is specified,
dir() returns the list of names in the current local scope.
dir() function is provided primarily as a convenience for use at an
interactive prompt, for example, asking what function the user would like to use.
Python divmod() Function
Returns the quotient and the remainder when the first parameter (the dividend) is divided by the second parameter (the divisor).
Python enumerate() Function
Takes a collection (lists, tuples, sets and dictionaries) and returns it is as an "enumerate object." When using the enumerate object in a loop, each item in the enumerate object includes a counter, starting from 0 by default, and the value in the collection.
Python eval() Function
The eval() function evaluates and executes a Python code expression, returning the result of the expression.
Python exec() Function
Executes a code block, expression to be evaluated, or single expression statement to be printed.
Python filter() Function
This function returns an iterator that yields the items that are either true, or items for which the filter function returns true.
Python float() Function
Converts a string or integer to a floating point number.
Python format() Function
format method conerts a value to a string using the specified format.
For example, ".2f" means, format the value to two numbers past the decimal
Python frozenset() Function
Returns an immutable (unchangeable) set. This is useful for when you
want to prevent the set from being changed. In the following example, we
see that an exception is thrown when trying to add another item to the
Python getattr() Function
Gets the value of an attribute of an object. While normally one just gets the value to
an attribute (for example,
name = person.name), in meta-programming, it can
is often useful to be able to get an attribute by its name.
Python globals() Function
Returns a dictionary of the current global symbol table. In this example, we are filtering the globals to exclude Python defined globals, which always are preceded with '__'. This is often more useful, so you can see only the variables that you've created that are global.
Python hasattr() Function
Returns true if the object has the specified property or method.
Python hash() Function
Returns the hash value of the specified value if it has one. Numbers do not have a hash value other than the number itself. Hash values are used to improve the performance of key lookups, for example in a dictionary.
Python help() Function
Executes the built-in help system, which is an interactive way of getting help on Python functions.
Python hex() Function
Converts a number to its hexidecimal value.
Python id() Function
Returns a unique id for the specified object. This is useful to determine whether two values are in fact the same object.
Python input() Function
The input() function puts the user input into a variable.
Python isinstance() Function
True if the object is an instance of the specified type, if not
this function returns False.
Python issubclass() Function
Returns True if a class is a subclass of the specified class.
Python iter() Function
Returns an iterator object, which can be used to iterate over the
collection. Because collections have built-in iterators, the
function applied to collections is not necessary, as the example demonstrates.
Python len() Function
Returns the length of an object. This is useful for determining the length of string or array and the the number of items in a collection (list, dictionary, set, or tuple.)
Python list() Function
Creates a List object from the supplied object.
Python locals() Function
Python map() Function
Returns an interator that applies the specified function to every item in the iterable (usually a collection), and yields the results.
Python complex() Function
Returns a complex number from either two numbers or a string. The real
and imaginary components of the complex number can be accessed with the